Infertility can be described as a situation where a female is unable to get pregnant or even carry a pregnancy to full term or a male being unable to make a fertile female pregnant and it is a serious source of trouble for most couples. The intensity of infertility usually varies between men and women although the causes are different too. Various causes of infertility in men include immune infertility which interferes with sperm motility and transportation after ejaculation and may be caused by surgery, trauma, breakdown of a man’s blood-testis barrier, prostatitis, infections, and cancer. Infertility in men can also be caused by the production of low or poor quality sperms but the testis as a result of conditions such as varicocele among others. Infertility also occurs when there is hormonal imbalance as well as poor health condition in the body due to conditions such as obesity, coeliac disease, drug and substance abuse, DNA damage and epigenetic conditions.
Stigma both socially and culturally is very common to females who suffer infertility unlike in men and may occur as a result of diseases, poor nutrition as well as uterus malformations. Causes of infertility in women are categorized into three including genetic, acquired or can also be due to the location of the infertility problem in the female reproductive systems. The major genetic causes of infertility are chromosomal abnormalities which may be as a result of various mutations of the sex chromosomes. Acquired factors that may lead to infertility in women include advancement in age, smoking tobacco, sexually transmitted infections, obesity and eating disorders, chemotherapy diabetes, coeliac disease, kidney and liver diseases among other. On the location in the reproductive organs in female, infertility may occur as a result of genetic defects on the ovaries, endometriosis and tubal occlusion in the fallopian tube, fibroids and malformation in the uterus, antisperm antibodies in the cervix, as well as vaginal obstruction.
Diagnosis of male and female infertility should be done in certified clinic that has professionals who deal with fertility issues since for one to get proper treatment, the underlying cause has to be properly identified. Various male infertility treatment method includes surgery, taking of vitamin E medication as well as hormonal therapy and they have to be administered depending on the underlying cause of the infertility. In female, treatment of infertility can be done mostly through prevention but depend on what has caused the infertility. Some of the ways that one can use to prevent occurrence of infertility in women include leading a lifestyle that is healthy with abundant exercises and reduced uptake of caffeine, alcohol and smoking. Other methods that one can use to prevent it includes prevention as well as treatment of existing conditions such as diabetes and obesity, ensuring that one does not advance in age before getting a baby as well as freezing of the eggs for the preservation of fertility.